Law, Order, and Algorithms

Data and algorithms are rapidly transforming law enforcement and the criminal legal system, including how police officers are deployed, how discrimination is detected, and how sentencing, probation, and parole terms are set. Modern computational and statistical methods offer the promise of greater efficiency, equity, and transparency, but their use also raises complex legal, social, and ethical questions. In this course, we examine the often subtle relationship between law, public policy, and technology, drawing on recent court decisions, and applying methods from machine learning and game theory. We survey the legal and ethical principles for assessing the equity of algorithms, describe computational techniques for designing fairer systems, and consider how anti-discrimination law and the design of algorithms may need to evolve to account for machine bias. Concepts will be developed in part through guided in-class coding exercises, though prior programming experience is not necessary.


Sharad Goel [ email ]
Office Hours: Please sign-up for an appointment

TF: Hans Gaebler [ email ]
Office Hours: Tuesdays @ 12:00-2:00pm in Shorenstein 2313C

CA: Oscar Boochever [ email ]
Office Hours: Mondays and Wednesdays @ 12:00-1:00pm via Zoom


Lecture: Mondays and Wednesdays @ 10:30-11:45pm in Rubenstein 304
Discussion section: Fridays @ 10:30-11:45pm in Littauer 332

On-time attendance at lectures is required. Our aim is to create a collaborative and supportive learning environment. One of the best ways to learn the course material is to engage with the lectures by asking questions. If you need to miss a class or will be late, please email the instructors prior to the lecture.

Please do not use electronics (laptops, tablets, phones) during the lecture and discussion components of class. However, please do bring your laptops to every class session, as there will often be in-class coding and analysis exercises. We’re happy to make exceptions in special circumstances.


It is our intent that all students, regardless of their backgrounds or perspectives, be well served by this course, that students’ learning needs be addressed both in and out of class, and that the diversity that students bring to this class be viewed as a resource, strength, and benefit. We aim to present materials and conduct activities in ways that are respectful of this diversity. Your suggestions are encouraged and appreciated.


Grades are based on class participation and a final project. Specifically, the various components of the course are weighted as follows:

Final projects

Final projects should be conducted in teams of 3-5 students. The expectation is to complete a research paper (approximately 10 single-spaced pages) and presentation (approximately 5 minutes) that engage critically with the equity of human or algorithmic decisions. Projects can be empirical, legal, sociological, or, ideally, a combination of all of these. Projects can address issues beyond the criminal-legal system but they should build upon the ideas we discuss in class. These projects are opportunities for you to examine a wider range of techniques, domains, and/or legal principles than we are able to cover in the class lectures.

In-class presentations will be held on Monday, April 22 and Wednesday, April 24, and final papers are due on Monday, April 29.

[ Tentative ] Syllabus

The slides and labs below integrate material from past iterations of this course that I have taught over the last several years. They were developed in collaboration with and incorporate feedback from many people, including: Alex Chohlas-Wood, Madison Coots, Josh Grossman, Daniel E. Ho, Jongbin Jung, Jerry Lin, Julian Nyarko, Cheryl Phillips, Hao Sheng, Amy Shoemaker, Ravi Shroff, Sabina Tomkins, and Keniel Yao.